Vocabulary Terms

Characteristics of the Internet influence the systems built on it.

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Cloud computing
The distribution of server and other processing workloads to large clusters of computers used as servers or processing centers.
The service that translates URLs to IP addresses.
DNS root name server
The root level DNS servers only know the IP addresses of the top level domain servers.
Top Level Domains are at the ends of URLs, such as com and org.
HyperText Markup Language allows software such as web browsers to structure information presented on the World Wide Web.
HyperText Transfer Protocol - the protocol used for transmitting web pages over the Internet
HTTP Cookie
Data stored on the user's computer, which helps to identify the user
A GET request is sent by a client to a Web server, requesting a document such as a page, image or script file.
A POST request uses a browser to send information to a Web server, which may respond with a document or acknowledgement.
The secure variation of HTTP uses SSL and TLS to provide encrypted connections for Web requests and replies.
IP Address
A number assigned to any item that is connected to the Internet.
Net Neutrality
the principle that all Internet traffic should be treated equally by Internet Service Providers.
Network Redundancy
having multiple backups to ensure reliability during cases of high usage or failure
Small chunks of information that have been carefully formed from larger chunks of information.
A type of computer that forwards data across a network
Secure Sockets Layer is an encryption protocol for securing HTTPS Web requests and replies.
Transmission Control Protocol - provides reliable, ordered, and error-checked delivery of a stream of packets on the internet. TCP is tightly linked with IP and usually seen as TCP/IP in writing.
Transport Layer Security is an encryption protocol for securing HTTPS requests.
An easy-to-remember address for calling a web page (like www.code.org).
Web browser
Software that allows users to send requests to Web servers and display replies.