Vocabulary Terms

Algorithms are precise sequences of instructions for processes that can be executed by a computer and are implemented using programming languages.

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Terms

Algorithm
A precise sequence of instructions for processes that can be executed by a computer
AND operation
Boolean operation: only evaluates to true when both of the operands are true
Boolean
A single value of either TRUE or FALSE.
Boolean Expression
In programming, an expression that evaluates to True or False
Bug
Part of a program that does not work correctly.
Conditional
Statement that only runs under certain conditions.
Decomposition
Breaking a larger problem down into smaller parts
double data type
In Java, can store 64-bit floating-point numbers.
Equality operator
Comparison/logical operator: evaluates to true when the operands have the same value.
Expression
Any valid unit of code that resolves to a value.
Function
A named group of programming instructions. Functions are reusable abstractions that reduce the complexity of writing and maintaining programs.A named group of programming instructions. Functions are reusable abstractions that reduce the complexity of writing and maintaining programs.
Greater than operator
Comparison/logical operator: evaluates to true when the left operand has a value more than the right operand.
Greater than or equal operator
Comparison/logical operator: evaluates to true when the left operand's value is at least as great as the right operand's.
If-Else
Sets up two code pathways: one when a condition is met, another when the condition is not met
If-Statement
The common programming structure that implements "conditional statements".
Inequality operator
Comparison/logical operator: evaluates to true when the two operands have different values.
int data type
In Java, can store 32 bit signed integers.
Java class
A blueprint for objects that have state and behavior.
Karel the Dog
Only able to do four things originally: move, turn left, pick up a ball and set a ball down.
Less than operator
Comparison/logical operator: evaluates to true when the left operand's value is lower than the right operand's value.
Less than or equal operator
Comparison/logical operator: evaluates to true when the right operand's value is at least as great as the left operand's value.
Logical operator
Type of operator that evaluates one or more values and returns a boolean result of true or false
Method
In Java, a set of one or more program statements with a name and possibly input parameters, executed from the context of a class. May or may not return a value.
Modulo
A mathematical operation that returns the remainder after integer division. Example: 7 MOD 4 = 3
NOT operation
Boolean operation: flips the truth value of its operand
OR operation
Boolean operation: only evaluates to false when both operands are false; true otherwise
Parameter
An extra piece of information passed to a function to customize it for a specific need.
Program
An algorithm that has been coded into something that can be run by a machine.
Program statement
A part of a program that executes a single action
Statement block
A set of program statements that execute one after the other
Statement terminator
A special character indicating the end of a program statement
String data type
In Java. can store sequences of characters.
Syntax
The vocabulary and grammar of a language, programming or otherwise
Syntax error
A problem with the vocabulary or grammar of a program
Variable
A placeholder for a piece of information that can change.